Facing the increasing threat of climate changes connected with the global warming and ceaseless growing number of the human population, which results in decreasing area of the land, it is possible that in near future it can lead to necessity of creating a new, alternative way of living on Earth. Jules Verne already emphasized in the XIX century that it seems most probable to use oceans, that constitute over 70% of the globe surface.
Proposals to build colonies in harsh conditions were not unusual in the 60s and 70s of the XX century. Making use of the emerging technologies developed for defense, excavating and exploring minerals, numerous architects proposed ambitious projects of cities and colonies on the sea, in the deserts, on the poles, in the Alpes and even in the space. During CIAM congress in Otterloo in 1959 Ralph Erskine presented a plan of a city on Antarctica. 2 Ten years later, in cooperation with Kenzo Tange, Frei Otto published a series of plans of arctic cities. 3 Critics of that time, such as Manfredo Tafuri and Colin Rowe, rejected the projects, as well as the more conceptual outlines, such as Superstudio and Constant. Rowe diagnosed them as an impulse that emerged from science fiction and deemed that the outlines give merely “picturesque visions of the future”. 4 Simultaneously Japanese metabolists presented amazing projects, such as the Plan of the Tokyo Bay from 1960 by Kenzo Tange and proposals of marine cities by Kikutake Kurokawa. 5 Around that time the foundation Triton in Cambridge, Massachusetts, proposed a development of floating deep cities of enclosed waters of already existing metropolitan ports. Their scheme resembled patent illustrations from 1959 for an underwater island made by Buckminster Fuller, published in 1964 in one issue of the Archigram magazine “Metropolis”. The drifting city Triton connected the supertechnologies of oil tankers and drilling rigs.