In addition to the system enabling the observation and organization of prisoners' life, prison architecture often had its own aesthetic expression to evoke specific emotions – just like monumental court buildings and temples’ towers. Giovanni Battista Piranesi, in his cycle of engravings Carceri, presents his visions of prisoners. The spaces he depicted are not, however, tight and closed, as in the Bentham prison model..4The rooms that Piranesi pictures are spacious, full of stairs and half-masts. High vaults resemble the interiors of Christian temples.
// The vision of Piranesi's prison is a building that does not restrict freedom in terms of limiting the available living space, but which limits orientation. It’s a trap with no exit, with a tangled arrangement of stairs and a vague construction.
One can imagine the impression of confusion and loss of a convict who would face such a fortress. Emotion in architecture was operated by George Dance while designing the Newgate prison in London, whose monumental architecture must have overwhelmed the convict who came to its gates. However, when it comes to manipulating emotions in architecture, it’s difficult not to mention the masterful skills of architects designing edifices for great leaders, which in the 20th century in particular adopted the form of monuments. In the Complex of the Building, Dejan Sudjic gives an example of the architecture of Albert Speer, the chief architect of the Third Reich, whose reconstruction of the city of Berlin and the designs of power buildings almost completely took over control on emotions of the users. 5 It would be a mistake to say that it was only in the 20th century that the architecture was able to do this, however, Nazi and fascist architecture, as well as the architecture of Stalinism, achieved a kind of mastery in this field. The restored architectural elements, drawn from classicism, have been given monumental proportions. Overwhelming colonnades, thick walls and endless corridors made the impression of indestructible and immortal. Standing on their places always and forever. They made it very clear to every visitor which place they take in the hierarchy and how will end up their insubordination or rebellion. One of the most vivid examples of this kind could be seen in Ehrentribüne, blown up at the end of the 1950s, designed by Albert Speer. It’s a part of a complex of buildings in the Luitpoldarena park, where Nazi forces showed up and which are present on most of the recordings of Führer's speeches from that time - striking with the same charisma as aggression. The grandstand could accommodate hundreds of Nazi dignitaries. There was a monumental stairway leading to it, and a few meters wide and several dozen long stone sidewalk. Three huge party banners fluttered over, and six golden eagles guarded the safety of the leaders. Nowadays, it sounds grotesque, but in the activists and soldiers of that time it built the impression of the power of the leader and the party, which perhaps misinterpreted the legitimacy of the views expressed by the party. Bolder ideas to emphasize the role of parties and leaders appeared in the Soviet Union. In a competition from the early 1930's for the Palace of the Soviets won a project, in which the role of golden eagles from Nuremberg was taken over by Lenin's monument - hundreds of meters high, thus leaving other competition concepts behind, amongst which were these by Le Corbusier or Erich Mendelsohn. The author of the sophisticated winning concept was the Soviet architect Boris Iofan.6 The construction started, however, it did not reach a significant amount before further work was abandoned due to the invasion of the Third Reich, and materials from the started construction were disassembled and used to build bridges and necessary infrastructure. The lowest storey of the Palace of the Soviets was a square pedestal, however, distinguishable from the base of ordinary sculpture with rhythmical divisions constituting the entrance to the building. The facades were decorated with neoclassical elements, however, as it was in the Nazi architecture, it was done on a much larger scale than in classical buildings. If the building was completed, it would be the highest tower of its time. The rank of the tallest building would quickly be taken away by other skyscrapers, but the designer's and the jury's own design would not have had a fair competition for a very long time.